What Is Bleed Air in Aircraft?
Aircraft require air for a wide range of purposes. Luckily, they do not have to utilize separate devices or systems to generate air. In fact, planes can easily get this air from their engines, and it is referred to as bleed air. This is only the case as long as the aircraft has air-breathing turbine engines. To better understand the complexity of this type of air, we will provide a brief overview of bleed air.
What Is Bleed Air?
Bleed air is defined as the excess air or “bleed off” taken from the air-breathing turbine engines. As turbine engines necessitate air, they burn it together with jet fuel to generate propulsion. The process begins with outside air making its way into the turbine engines. While inside the engine’s compressor, the air rises in temperature. This increase causes the gas to expand, thereby pressurizing it. A majority of this pressurized air goes into the combustion chamber where it is burned along with jet fuel. However, some of this bleed air or “excess air” must be diverted to the bleed air duct system valves.
Why Do Aircraft Need Bleed Air?
You may question: “If bleed air is excess air that the airplane expels, why do aircraft need it?” This simple answer is that bleed air is used to power pneumatic components. It is important to note that most aircraft are equipped with both hydraulic and pneumatic components. While hydraulic components need pressurized air, pneumatic components require pressurized fluid. Consequently, because of the availability of bleed air on aircraft, pneumatic components benefit from it.
In addition to powering pneumatic components, bleed air helps to regulate the cabin pressure. As air becomes thinner at high altitudes, airplanes must have a pressurized cabin. This ensures that a safe and comfortable environment is available for passengers and personnel. If the cabin pressure is too low, more air is pumped into the cabin. First, bleed air passes through a filter to eliminate any pollutants and particulate matter. Then, the clean air enters the cabin where it increases the pressure.
In some aircraft, bleed air is used to prevent ice formation on the wings. This is achieved by rerouting the hot bleed air over the wings to melt any lingering ice and prevent further accumulation. Bleed air can also be used to pressurize the potable water holding tank so that a pump does not need to be used to feed water into the galleys and lavatories.
In military applications, bleed air is used to enhance boundary layer energy. In a traditional blown flap, a small quantity of bleed air is distributed to the channels along the rear of the wing where it is forced through slots in the wing flaps when the flaps reach certain angles. By injecting high-energy air into the boundary layer, there is an increase in the stalling angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient because it delays boundary layer separation from the airfoil.
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